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A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated. The heated or vaporized fluid exits the boiler for use in various processes or heating applications.

Construction of boilers is mainly limited to carbon steel, stainless steel, and cast iron. In live steam toys, brass is often used.

The source of heat for a boiler is combustion of any of several fuels, such as wood, coal, oil, or natural gas. Electric boilers use resistance or immersion type heating elements. Nuclear fission is also used as a heat source for generating steam. Heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs) use the heat rejected from other processes such as gas turbines

Boilers can be classified into the following configurations:

 

"Pot boiler or Haycock boiler " a primitive kettle where a fire heats a partially filled water container from below. 18th Century Haycock boiler generally produced and stored large volumes of very low-pressure steam,often hardyly above that of the atmosphere.These could burn wood or most often ,coal. Effciency was very low.

Fire-tube boiler. Here, water partially fills a boiler barrel with a small volume left above to accommodate the steam (steam space). The heat source is inside a furnace or firebox that has to be kept permanently surrounded by the water in order to maintain the temperature of the heating surface just below boiling point. The furnace can be situated at one end of a fire-tube which lengthens the path of the hot gases, thus augmenting the heating surface which can be further increased by making the gases reverse direction through a second parallel tube or a bundle of multiple tubes (two-pass or return flue boiler); alternatively the gases may be taken along the sides and then beneath the boiler through flues (3-pass boiler). In the case of a locomotive-type boiler, a boiler barrel extends from the firebox and the hot gases pass through a bundle of fire tubes inside the barrel which greatly increase the heating surface compared to a single tube and further improve heat transfer. Fire-tube boilers usually have a comparatively low rate of steam production, but high steam storage capacity. Fire-tube boilers mostly burn solid fuels, but are readily adaptable to those of the liquid or gas variety.

Water Tube boiler  in this type the water tubes are arranged inside a furnace in a number of possible configuration: often the water tubes connaect large drums,the lower ones containing water and the upper ones, steam;in other cases,such as a monotube boiler ,water is circulated by a pump though a succession of coils. This type generally gives high steam production rates,but less storage capacity than the above. Water tube boiler can be be designed to exploit any heat source including nuclear fission and are generally preferred in high pressure application since the high pressure water/steam is contained within narrow pipes which can withstand the pressure with a thiner wall.

Fire-tube boiler with Water-tube firebox. Sometimes the two above types have been combined in the following manner: the firebox contains an assembly of water tubes, the gases then pass through a conventional firetube boiler. Water-tube fireboxes were were installed in many Hungarian locomotives, but have met with little success in other countries.

In a cast iron sectional boiler, sometimes called a "pork chop boiler" the water is contained inside cast iron sections. These sections are assembled on site to create the finished boiler.

 

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BLAST FURNACES !!!

Four steel giants seek BoI breaks

Four world-class steelmakers - ArcelorMittal, Japan's Nippon Steel and JFE Steel and China's Baosteel - have expressed interest in tapping the Board of Investment's tax incentives for their upstream blast furnaces.

According to BoI secretary-general Satit Charnjavanakul, all four have submitted letters of interest to the state agency, which were open for submission through this past Thursday. ArcelorMittal is the world's largest steelmaker on the Fortune Global 500 list, followed by Nippon Steel, JFE Steel, South Korea's Posco Steel and Baosteel. The furnaces are expected to require an investment of over Bt100 billion each.

    Satit said yesterday that the BoI had not yet drafted the details of investment privileges for interested steelmakers. The process now involves the four collaborating with the National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB) and the BoI to find appropriate locations for their steel plants.

    Each plant will require an area of 5,000 to 10,000 rai for a minimum production capacity of 2 million tonnes of premium-grade upstream steel per year. While saying that it would take around six to 12 months to search for appropriate locations, Satit noted that the Eastern seaboard could be too crowded for such giant new investment projects. He added that the projects were likely to be located on the Southern Seaboard.

     The Surayud government did not get round to fully defining where the Southern seaboard would be. According to former industry minister Kosit Panpiemras, the next government should continue with the Southern seaboard project, or heavy industries - including the upstream steel plants - would not have an area to set up their plants.  During the Surayud government, the NESDB was ordered to study potential areas for the Southern seaboard. The survey covered a number of provinces in the South from Chumphon to Songkhla.

"We decided to keep those areas on the Andaman coast for tourism purposes. However, this can be changed if the new government does not agree," he said.

According to Satit, the new steel plants will be required to use advanced production technology in order to prevent environmental destruction and create harmony with communities. He said Sahaviriya Steel had also expressed interest to the BoI in an upstream steel blast furnace. However, its project was not approved because it did not meet the BoI's conditions. "Sahaviriya can continue with its project, but it will not receive any incentives from us," he said.

At present, domestic steel demand is estimated at 12.5 million to 13 million tonnes per annum. While 4.5 million tonnes are of premium grade for the automobile, electric and canned-food sectors, the rest is for construction purposes.

 Satit is confident that following the election, more investment will flow into Thailand. The BoI expects total applications for its investment incentives this year will be at least Bt500 million.

        Source:   Chalida Ekvitthayavechnukul :The Nation:  Southern Seaboard the likely site, Published on February 2, 2008

 

The knowledge about Used Boilers

By Jeanne Rongitsch

A used boiler is an option to consider when your home or company needs to buy or replace an existing boiler. Used boilers are just as efficient as new boilers. Their parts have been thoroughly inspected, cleaned and refinished to look like new. A used boiler is less costly and has many environmental benefits. There are many different types of boilers and each has a tailored use.

What is a boiler?

Boilers use fuel to heat water or steam and circulate the hot water through pipes. The hot water produced is then used to heat a building and/or produce hot water for personal or industrial use. For example a boiler used as a heating system in a home would have radiators in a house or part of a building. The boiler heats the water for use and also circulates that hot water through the pipes and the radiator, heating the rooms. A boiler uses circulated hot water whereas a furnace, found in many homes today, uses forced air and circulates it through vents.

Types of boilers include steam turbine, package boilers, steam generators, clean steam packages, hot water heaters, hot oil heaters, boilers and vaporizers. A package boiler is a boiler that is ordered with all necessary parts included, assembled and ready to use. Very little installation is required. Steam boilers are used to produce steam for industrial usage such as cleaning. Boilers vary in size and shape. A boiler used for a residence is going to be small enough to fit in the corner of a room, where are industrial boilers can be large enough to fill up an entire room. Depending on the amount of heat it needs to generate and what exactly it will be used for.

Refurbishing a boiler

If you now have a boiler and are considering replacing it you have a few options. Boilers have a general life of 30-40 years. If there are parts on your boiler that are not working you may consider getting it refurbished, buying a used boiler that has been refurbished already, or getting new parts. When a boiler is replaced it's often sent out to be remanufactured. The boiler is disassembled, cleaned, refurbished and then sent back out to operation or put on the market. The parts of the boiler are inspected and cleaned. If a part is no longer working and it is irreparable, it will be discarded, only parts that are safe and in working order are refurbished. It is common for brand new parts to be used with refurbished parts or systems. A boiler that has been refurbished can come out of the shop looking like new and work just as well as a new one, and for a much lower cost.

Other benefits

If the decision has been made to purchase a brand new boiler, consider sending your used boiler to get refurbished so that someone else can use it. Boilers can almost always be refurbished and recycled, if not for the whole boiler can usually be disassembled for parts. There may be a non-profit organization or church in your area that is in need of a boiler but cannot afford to purchase a new one. Having a used boiler available to purchase or given as a donation, would be a huge help to any organization. The benefits of used boilers extend beyond that. Buying used boilers benefits the environment by helping to keep used appliances and materials out of landfills and it creates jobs at recycling and remanufacturing plants.


 

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